Panentheism is basically the belief that God exists within but also transcends the universe.
According to most common theistic definition of God:
God created the universe, is omnipresent, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal and perfect.
- If God created the universe there would have been no place to create it other than out of and within Himself.
- If God is infinite or omnipresent, He must exist outside the universe as the universe itself is finite.
- If God is omnipotent or possessing of infinite power, then He must possess infinite energy. The universe contains only a finite amount of energy therefore the rest of God’s energy must exist outside of the universe.
*If God is eternal, then He must have existed before and will continue to exist after the universe which has a beginning and an end.
*If God is omniscient (knows everything), then His awareness must extend to all possible universes, not just this one.
*If God is perfect, then He must exist beyond this universe as in this universe the concept of perfection is purely imaginary. In this universe alone, God is incomplete.
*If God possesses any other infinite or absolute qualities, then he must be transcendent as infinity and absolutes do not exist in this universe.
To me, this all seems to be sufficient to make panentheism a necessity for most common theists.